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Ancient and Medieval Chronology

Modern analysis of biblical geography

Many strange phenomena occur in an unprejudiced analysis of biblical geography. That many biblical texts describe volcanic activity has been stressed in history long ago.

"The Lord said to Moses, 'I am now coming to you in a thick cloud. ... But when the ram's horn sounds (when the cloud leaves Mount Sinai-A.F.), they may go up the mountain' ... there were peals of thunder and flashes of lightning, a dense cloud on the mountain and a loud trumpet blast. ... Mount Sinai was all smoking because the Lord had come down upon it in fire; the smoke went up like the smoke of a kiln ... and the sound of the trumpet grew ever louder" (Ex 19:9, 13, 16, 18).

"... all the people saw how it thundered and the lightning flashed, when they heard the trumpet sound and saw the mountain smoking ..." (Ex 20:18);

"... you stood ... at Horeb. ... The mountain was ablaze with fire to the very skies: there was darkness, cloud, and thick mist" (Dt:10-ll).

The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah has long been regarded in history to have been due to a volcanic eruption. For example:
"... and then the Lord rained down fire and brimstone from the skies on Sodom and Gomorrah. ... He saw thick smoke rising high from the earth like the smoke of a lime-kiln" (Gn 19:24,28).

Here is a list of apparent volcanic eruptions mentioned in the Bible (compiled by V.P. Fomenko and T.G. Fomenko): Gn 19:18,24; Ex 13:21, 22; 14:18; 20:15; 24:15,16,17; Nm 14:14; 21:28; 26:10; Dt 4:11,36; 5:19,20,21; 9:15,21; 10:4; 32:22; S 22:8-10,13; 1 K 18:38,39; 19:11,12; 2 K 1:10-12,14; Ne 9:12,19; Ps 11:6; Ps 106:17; Ps 106:18; Ezk 38:22; Je 40, 8:45, Lam 2:3; 4:11; Is 4:5; 5:25; 9:17,18; 10:17; 30:30; J1 2:3,5,10.

To associate (as is done traditionally) all these descriptions with Mt. Sinai (and Jerusalem) seems doubtful; it is generally known that it has never been a volcano.

Where did the events occur then? It suffices to study the geological map of the Mediterranean area ([61], pp. 380-381, 461). There are no acting volcanoes in the Sinai peninsula, Syria, or Palestine; there are only zones of tertiary and quaternary volcanism, as, for example, near Paris. In the above-mentioned regions, where the biblical events are traditionally located, no volcanic activity has been discovered since the birth of Christ.

The only powerful, and by the way, acting volcanic zone, is Italy together with Sicily. Besides, Egypt and North Africa have no volcanoes [61]. Thus, we have to find
(1) a powerful volcano active in the historical era;
(2) a destroyed capital (see the book of the Prophet Jeremiah) near the volcano;
(3) two other cities destroyed by the volcano, namely, Sodom and Gomorrah. There exists such a volcano in the Mediterranean, and it is unique, namely, the famous Vesuvius, one of the most powerful volcanoes in history. Famed Pompeii ("capital"?) and two destroyed cities Stabiae (Sodom?) and Hercu-laneum (Gomorrah?) are located nearby. We cannot but mention a certain similarity in the names of these Italian and biblical towns. It is possible that the name of Sinai for Vesuvius originates from the Latin Sino (sinus), and Horeb from the Latin horribilis (horrible).

The following analytic study worth mentioning, which permits to read the vowel-free text of the Bible, was performed in . It took into account placing Mt. Sinai-Horeb-Zion in Italy. We illustrate by examples.
"The Lord our God spoke to us at Horeb and said, 'You have stayed on this mountain long enough; go now, make for all Canaan...'" (Dt 1:7).

The theologicans supply the Hebrew KNN with vowels as Canaan and place \ it in the desert on the Dead Sea coast, but another solution is also possible, namely, KNN = GENUA (Italian Genoa), "... all Canaan and the Lebanon ' ..."(Dtl:7).

The theologicans restore the Hebrew LBN with vowels as Lebanon; however lebanon means "white", i.e., the same as Mont Blanc, or White Mountain: "... as far as the great river, the PRT" (Dt 1:7). The theologicans restore PRT with vowels and decipher it as the Euphrates; but, there is the large tributary of the Danube, the Prut, located in central Europe, as beyond Mont Blanc.

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