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Ancient and Medieval Chronology

Modern analysis of biblical geography
Part II

"Then we set out from Horeb ... and marched through that vast and terrible wilderness" (Dt 1:19).

In fact, the famous Phlegraei, vast and burnt-out spaces filled with small volcanoes, fumaroles, and solidified lava streams are located near Vesuvius-Horeb. "... and so we came to KDS-BRN" (Dt 1:19). KDS-BRN is supplied with vowels as Kadesh-Barnea, which is, possibly, a town on the Rhone ([I], Vol. 2, p. 166). It is also possible that modern Geneva was meant: "... and we spent many days marching round the hill-country ofSeir" (Dt 2:1). Mount Seir was left without translation; however, if it is translated, we obtain Devil's Mountain(s). And there is such a mountain near Lake Geneva, namely Le Diableret ("Devil's Mountain"). Then, the "Children of Lot" (Dt 2:9) met on the way can be identified with the Latins (LT) ([I], Vol. 2, p. 167); "... and cross the gorge of the Arnon ..." (Dt 2:24); but, this is the Italian river Arno:

"Next we ... advanced ... to Bashan" (Dt 3:1). The town Bashan is often mentioned in the Bible. It is surprising that Bassano still exists in Lombardy. "... king of Bashan ... came out against us at Edrei" (Dt 3:1). Adria is still here, on the Po delta; the Po, by the way, has often been mentioned by ancient Latin authors (e.g., Procopius) and called the Jordan (in Procopius' Eridanus), which is very consistent with the biblical spelling of the Jordan, namely, hay-yarden ([I]). "... and we captured all his cities ... sixty cities ..." (Dt 3:3-4). Indeed, in the Middle Ages, there were many big cities in the region: Verona, Padua, Ferrara, Bologna, and others. "... from the gorge of the Arnon to Mount Hermon (= HRMN)" (Dt 3:8). But it is obvious that MNT HRMN can be supplied with vowels to be translated as the "German mountains". "Only the Og king of Bashan remained ... His sarcophagus of iron may still be seen in the ... city of Rabbah" (Dt 3:11). Here is mentioned not only Ravenna, but also the famous tomb of Theodoric of the Ostrogoths (Og = Goths?), built in A.D. 493-526- There follows TBRH (Taberah in biblical translation), which is naturally identified with the TiBer in Italy; ZN is Siena, southeast of Livorno; and HBRN, i.e. "Gorge du Rhone", a town on the Rhone ([I]). The slopes of Monte Viso are called Jebus (Jgs 19:10-11) in the Bible, and Rome is called Ramah (Jgs 19:14).

According to the statistical analysis of ancient texts (see details below), and if the vowels are left out, the following geographical identifications may be consistent: Assyria = Germany, France = Persia (PRS), Jerusalem = Rome or Pompeii, Media = Hungary. Furthermore, due to the impossibility of the European location of many of the biblical events and terms, we stress that the word Venetiae could have been read by the ancients both as Venice and Phoenicia (Phoinike).

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